In the Census


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1850 James family:

Clay County, Missouri

 

This census entry has all the looks of one answered by a neighbor, rather than the family itself. Robert James at this time was dead in California. The family may not yet have heard of his death but even at that he should not be listed in the Missouri census as he was not residing there at the time. Zerelda James' first name is spelled with an "S" as the first letter, rather than a "Z", Frank's first name was really Alexander, and his age being listed as 10 is at odds with his 1843 birthdate. Jesse's middle initial is listed as "R" rather than"W".

 

Zerelda James remarried to Reuben Samuel September 26, 1855.


1860 James/Samuel family:

Clay County, Missouri

 

This is the James/Samuel family near the outbreak of the war. Alexander James is Frank James (Franklin being his middle name). Jesse's middle initial here looks like an "H" but comparing it to other handwriting examples of this census taker it is clearly a "W". The ones in the column at the right indicate they'd been to school within the year. $5000 was the value of the family's real estate. $6125 was the value of personal property. Daughter Susan later married Allen Parmer.

 


 

1870 Samuel family:

Clay County, Missouri

 

This is the 1870 census listing for Frank and Jesse James' mother, step-father, and half-siblings. Archie is the boy who was killed when the Pinkertons threw an incendiary into the house. It's been said he was retarded, but in the column on the census to indicate this there is no mark. Reuben Samuel was not 92 years old in 1870. Daughter Susan James is listed on the next page, age 20.

 


1880 James brothers census:

Davidson County, Tennessee

 

This 1880 census listing looks very promising as having been, in actuality, Frank and Jesse James living under their aliases Woodson and Howard in Tennessee. Frank would be Ben. J. Woodson. They list their birthplaces as Maryland--it is known that at least Frank had lived for a time in Maryland so it's a reasonable place for them use, being familiar with the state, instead of their real birthplace of Missouri. The children's birthplaces are listed as Tennessee. Frank's wife is listed as "Fannie" instead of Annie. It's a good substitution--if she was called Annie at some point instead of Fannie it's likely no one would notice. The same applies to Jesse's wife being called Josie or Zee. Frank's son's real name was Robert and is so listed here. Jesse James is listed as Geo. D. Howard. John D. Howard is often said to be the name he used at this time. This is a very near substitution. His son is listed as Charley. The boy's real name was Jesse Edwards yet was later called Tim. At age 4 it would have been risky for the child to know or use his real name. The other children were too young to divulge any real information yet. Daughter Mary is listed by her correct name. Both couples are listed as married. You'll notice the "in law" after "brother" on Geo. D. Howard's entry is put in looking like an afterthought, describing his relationship to Ben J. Woodson. Perhaps the raised eyebrow of the census taker made them realize that Woodson and Howard as brothers had different last names.

 


1850 Younger family:

Jackson County, Missouri

James H. Younger is listed on the next page, age 2.

[Notes: the checkmark after Cole's name probably means only some later researcher marked an historically interesting individual, the ones in the column following the children's names mean they had attended school within the year. $9000 is the value of real estate owned]


1860 Younger family:

Cass County, Missouri

About a year after this census Cole Younger joined Quantrill's unit--a teenaged boy; within two years the family's father would be murdered. James Younger, shown here as twelve years old, would be a soldier--a guerrilla fighter--within the next five years, following Quantrill to his demise in Kentucky. Robert Younger (shown here as five--should have been six or seven) and John grew up in the midst of some of the nastiest fighting between Americans ever in this country. You can see they were all just children as the conflict engulfed the family and their world.

[notes: the check in the column following the children's listings means they had attended school within that year, the one in the column following the laborer living there means he could not read or write, the value of the family's real estate was $30,000, personal property, including slaves, $7000]


Younger family 1870 census:

Dallas County, Texas

The Youngers in Texas in 1870, all living quite openly under their own names. Difficulties in Missouri had caused them to head to Texas not long before this census. Birthplaces (the column with the dittos) all listed as Missouri. Susan is "Suze" the former slave who remained with the family. Bettie is probably Henrietta, the youngest daughter. In January of the year following this census John got into serious trouble in Texas, indicted for the murder of a deputy sheriff. Jim Younger, himself, was a deputy sheriff in Dallas County 1870-71. Thomas is Cole Younger.


Younger brothers 1880 census:

Washington County, Minnesota (Stillwater prison)

The line in the space following their names is a 'ditto' carrying down the word "prisoner". The one in the column following indicates they were unmarried. Their occupations are somewhat amusingly listed as "freebooter". Their birthplaces are listed as Missouri, as are those of their parents (birthplaces of the parents vary in the following censuses).


Younger brothers 1900 census:

Washington County, Minnesota (Stillwater prison)

Bob Younger had died in 1889. The two surviving Younger brothers appear on the 1900 census, having been in Stillwater prison 24 years at this point. They were paroled the next year. Their occupations are listed as "farmer." Their father's birthplace is listed as Missouri, and their mother's birthplace is listed as Tennessee.


Younger, Cole, 1910 census:

Jackson County, Missouri

Cole Younger's last appearance in the US census, living with his niece Nora Hall. His occupation is listed as "lecturer." This time Cole's father's birthplace is listed as Kentucky with his mother's as Missouri.


 


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