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Posted November 15, 2003
"KANSAS JAYHAWKING RAIDS INTO WESTERN MISSOURI IN 1861"
by Albert Castel
Copyright 1959 Albert Castel. Used with Permission.
This is copyrighted material--the article, the pictures, and the introduction--and may not be copied or reproduced in any form, including on other websites, without permission of the authors.
Books by Albert Castel
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Introduced by G. E. Rule
Albert Castel, over a published career that is approaching fifty years, has proven himself to be the leading historian of the Civil War in the West. With titles like General Sterling Price and the Civil War in the West (1968), William Clarke Quantrill: His Life and Times (1962), and Bloody Bill Anderson: The Short Savage Life of a Civil War Guerrilla (with Thomas Goodrich, 1998), none of those who are serious about studying the war in Missouri can consider themselves well-read on the subject if they have not read Castel. His other titles on the war in the West will also be read for many years to come, and his Decision in the West: The Atlanta Campaign of 1864 (1992) is an award-winning title that is likely to remain the definitive statement on what was arguably the most important campaign of the war. Dr. Castel’s most recent title, Articles of War: Winners, Losers, and Some Who Were Both in the Civil War, Stackpole Books, 2001, is available from Amazon.com.
“Kansas Jayhawking Raids into Western Missouri in 1861” originally appeared in the Missouri Historical Review 54/1 (State Historical Society of Missouri, October 1959). Castel, as both pioneer and leading authority on Kansas and the Civil War, provides an interesting account of the early history of the Kansas-Missouri war-within-a-war. This war would continue to build in intensity and tragedy until culminating in August of 1863 in the Lawrence Massacre and Order No. 11 depopulating three western Missouri counties (see also Castel’s “Order No. 11 and the Civil War on the Border”). It is worth noting that T.J. Stiles recent and critically acclaimed Jesse James: Last Rebel of the Civil War has challenged, at least to a degree, the traditional reading of the relationship between Jayhawking and the motivation of the Pro-Confederate guerrillas of western Missouri. Unlike Castel and the traditional school of thought on this issue, Stiles puts more emphasis on Lawrence as “the abolitionist center” of Kansas rather than as “the Jayhawking center”. It was both, of course, and it will be interesting to see if future historians continue to accept Castel’s analysis of the guerrillas, or take Stiles’ reading and generalize it beyond Jesse James. Our own opinion is that the average Missourian of the time, although unfairly in many cases, would have seen “Jayhawker” and “abolitionist” as nearly interchangeable terms, with the former being merely a subset of the latter.
Kansans watched Missouri closely during the early months of 1861, anxious as to the course it would pursue in the crisis between North and South. They retained bitter memories of the "Border Ruffian" raids of the '50's and feared that if Missouri joined the Confederacy these would be repeated on a greater and more devastating scale. Many Missourians, they knew, harbored an intense hatred of the "horse-stealing abolitionists" of Kansas.
The direction Missouri would take, North or South, long remained uncertain. Torn by conflicting sympathies and interests, most Missourians hoped that their state could be neutral. Finally, however, open warfare broke out in June between the Unionists headed by Brigadier General Nathaniel B. Lyon and the pro-Southern followers of Governor Claiborne F. Jackson. Lyon drove Jackson from the State capital at Jefferson City, and Jackson countered with a proclamation calling for 50,000 men to resist the Northern "invasion." The Missouri State Guard, commanded by Major General Sterling Price, gathered in Southwest Missouri for a campaign against Lyon in conjunction with Confederate forces from Arkansas.
Governor Charles Robinson of Kansas regarded Jackson's proclamation as tantamount to a declaration of war. At his order, hundreds of armed Kansans gathered along the border and prepared to repel invasion. Some Kansans, however, declared that the best policy was to take the offensive against the Missourians in order to "keep them from our doors by giving them something to do at home.” Foremost among this group were the "jayhawkers" of "Captain" James Montgomery and "Captain" Charles Jennison, who for several years had been harassing alleged proslavery settlers in southern Kansas and making occasional raids into Missouri. Their activities had gained them notoriety as "the scourges of the border," and they had the support of influential Kansas and New England abolitionists. But although they claimed to be inspired by only the highest motives, it was often difficult to determine whether their hatred of slavery equaled their love of plunder. They welcomed the coming of war in Missouri as opening up new and greater opportunities.
Jennison was the first to act. On June 19, with about 100 men "well-versed in guerrilla warfare," he accompanied a regular army expedition to Kansas City and participated in a Union flag-raising ceremony. The following day he went on an "independent scouting mission" to Independence, where he forced "several of the leading rebels" to take the oath of allegiance. Shortly afterwards Montgomery made a quick dash across the border, fought a skirmish with "rebel guerrillas," then marched back loaded with plunder and accompanied by "contrabands"--slaves who "happened to walk off on their own accord." In July, Jennison struck at Morristown, Missouri, where his men reportedly killed a number of "secesh," and in August he looted the stores of Harrisonville. Throughout the summer other jayhawker bands led by John Stewart and Marshall Cleveland followed the example of Montgomery and Jennison on a lesser scale.
Late in August a force of 1,200 troops, entitled the "Kansas Brigade," assembled at Fort Scott under the command of Senator James H. Lane, leader of the extreme antislavery element in Kansas. Its ostensible mission was to defend southern Kansas from Price, who had defeated Lyon at the Battle of Wilson's Creek on August 10. However Lane openly proclaimed his intention of marching into Missouri, declaring that as he did so he would not object to seeing "an army of slaves marching out." Montgomery, who had procured a colonel's commission, was second in command to Lane, Jennison, Stewart, and other jayhawkers attached themselves informally to the brigade.
Price, having heard that the Missouri counties east of Fort Scott were "infested" with the "marauding and murdering bands" of Lane, decided to "clear them out." On September 2 he defeated a portion of Lane's troops in a skirmish at Drywood Creek near Fort Scott, which Lane evacuated. Content with thus "chastising" the Kansans, he marched on to Lexington, Missouri, where he successfully besieged the Union garrison.
Lane remained in a fortified camp near Fort Scott, fearful for the safety of his army and Kansas, until assured that Price had gone on to the Missouri River. He then sent a detachment under Jennison in "pursuit." Jennison followed Price at a respectable distance as far as Papinsville, Missouri, then returned with 200 cattle and a number of "contrabands."
On September 10, "with a smart little army of about 1,500," Lane started northward along the Missouri line. His avowed objective, however, was not to pursue Price but to "clear out" the valley of the Osage and to "pitch into" the towns of Butler, Harrisonville, Osceola, and Clinton. On September 12 he reached Trading Post, Kansas, and from there turned eastward into Missouri. As soon as they crossed the border his men began to loot, burn, and perhaps murder and rape.
The climax of Lane's march occurred at Osceola on September 23. After exchanging a few shots with some Confederates on the outskirts, his men entered the town and proceeded to ransack it. They robbed the bank, pillaged stores and private houses, and looted the courthouse. Captain Thomas Moonlight bombarded this last building with a cannon, and others set fire to the town, almost totally destroying it. Many of the Kansans got so drunk that when it came time to leave they were unable to march and had to ride in wagons and carriages. They carried off with them a tremendous load of plunder, including as Lane's personal share a piano and a quantity of silk dresses. The "Sack of Osceola" henceforth was a prime cause of bitter hatred of Lane and Kansans by the people of West Missouri.
The self-proclaimed purpose of Lane's expedition was to suppress secessionist sentiment in western Missouri and to hamper Price's operations. But his real objective, besides plunder, was to give a practical demonstration of what he had told his Senate colleagues in July, that slavery could not survive the march of the Union armies. By the time his brigade had completed its march scores of Negroes were present in its ranks as teamsters, cooks, and even as soldiers. Probably most of the Negroes came along on their own accord. As early as July, Montgomery wrote that "Contraband Brigades are coming in hourly" and that he did not know what to do with them. Other reports told of large numbers of Negroes, either singly or in groups, fleeing into Kansas. Later, in November, chaplains H. H. Moore and H. D. Fisher of the brigade led a "Black Brigade" of 160 wagons, all filled with Negroes, into Kansas, where they distributed the ex-slaves as laborers among the farms and towns of the southern part of the state.
Lane completed his march at Kansas City on September 29. After remaining three weeks, he joined Major General John C. Fremont's army in a southward pursuit of Price's retreating forces. "Our march through Missouri," later wrote the commander of Lane's cavalry, "was noted for nothing very remarkable except that our trail was marked by the feathers of ‘secesh’ poultry and the debris of disloyal beegums." The brigade arrived at Springfield on November 1 but advanced no further. At Lincoln's order Major General David Hunter replaced Fremont and dispersed the army into defensive positions. Lane and his men headed back to Fort Scott. Thus ended the garish career of the Kansas Brigade.
In the meantime Jennison, through the good offices of Governor Robinson, had acquired a commission as colonel of United States Volunteers. Robinson hoped, fatuously, that if Jennison were given a legitimate outlet for his warlike propensities he would cease his marauding and be of service to the state and the Union. Jennison set about recruiting a regiment which he called the "Independent Mounted Kansas jayhawkers" but which was officially designated the Seventh Kansas Volunteer Cavalry. Second in command of the regiment was Lieutenant Colonel Daniel R. Anthony, brother of Susan B. Anthony, a hotheaded abolitionist and publisher of the Leavenworth Daily Conservative, which despite its name was the most radical newspaper in Kansas.
Jennison did not have a complete regiment until November 7. Many of his men were Missourians, and several units came from Illinois. The most notable company, however, was from Ashtabula County, Ohio, and was commanded by John Brown, Jr. The members of this company were all fanatical abolitionists. Another organization of more than passing interest was Company H, which consisted mostly of criminals and ruffians, commanded by the notorious jayhawker and ex-convict, Marshall Cleveland. Many of the other officers were hardly better than Cleveland. Jennison himself was "in reality unfit for any position [of authority] on account of his poor education." Anthony and the other staff officers were "very careful not to permit him to write or do anything unless done under the supervision of some of his friends who have good judgment [sic]."
After exercising their martial prowess in sacking the saloons of Leavenworth, eight companies of the Seventh Kansas crossed into Missouri at Kansas City on November 11 and 12. Anthony was in command, as Jennison remained behind "to perfect the organization of the regiment. The announced purpose of the expedition was to protect Union supply trains in Jackson County against bushwhackers, put down "rebels," and "loyalize" the people of that section.  Company H rode one-fourth mile ahead of the main column as the advance guard. Its movements were marked by the flames of burning houses and wheatfields and by the flight of women and children into the woods. Near the Little Blue, Anthony encountered a band of armed Missouri irregulars headed by the "notorious" Upton Hayes. After a sharp fight in which he lost nine killed, Anthony drove Hayes' men from their camp. He next marched to Pleasant Hill, near where his men killed eleven guerrillas and recaptured most of a wagon train. Then followed a raid on Independence, where "the citizens were given a little touch of the misfortunes of war," after which the jayhawkers, as the Seventh Kansas was popularly known, marched back to Kansas City, carrying much plunder and accompanied by many Negroes. Some of the former slaves, reported Missouri artist George C. Bingham, were armed and serving as soldiers.
Late in November, Brigadier General James W. Denver, commander of the District of Kansas, ordered the Seventh Kansas to West Point, Missouri, to protect against a threatened northward thrust by Price. Its march to that town followed the pattern of its earlier operations, as a member of the Ohio company wrote that "Every house along our line of march but one was burned and off on our left flank for miles, columns of smoke from burning houses could be seen." On reaching West Point, Anthony wrote to his father that his men had taken on the way 150 mules, 40 horses, and 129 Negroes, and that he had given the Negroes 60 horses and mules, some oxen, and ten wagons and two carriages, "all loaded down with Household Furniters [sic]...." "The Negroes [sic] train into Kansas," he added, "was one mile long. . . ." In a letter written several weeks later to sister Susan, he declared: "In our march we free every slave ... and arm or use them in such manner as will best aid us in putting down rebels. . . . We hope to stir up an insurrection among the negroes. . . ."
Although Price's invasion failed to materialize, the Jayhawkers remained in the vicinity of West Point well into January. Commanded by Anthony, sections of the regiment plundered Pleasant Hill, Morristown, and Rose Hill and burned Dayton and Columbus. General Hunter "read with surprise" Anthony's reports on the destruction of these villages and wrote him that he found no evidence in them "of a state of facts sufficient to warrant these extreme measures."
Late in January the Seventh Kansas was ordered to Humboldt, Kansas. There, in April, Jennison resigned his commission in a huff over not being promoted to brigadier general. Before resigning he made an "intemperate speech" to the regiment in which he denounced the President and the commanding general and practically urged his men to desert. A number of them, mainly from Company H, took his advice. On learning of Jennison's speech, General Hunter had him arrested and confined in the military prison at St. Louis. Pressure from influential abolitionists, to whom he was a hero, prevented a court martial and secured his release. He then entered the "live stock" business in Leavenworth--an enterprise which perhaps gave rise to the saying that the horses of Kansas were mostly "out of Missouri, by Jennison."
Although Jennison's name was identified with the activities of the Seventh Kansas by both Kansans and Missourians, he had actually exercised little direct command over the regiment. According to a letter of Anthony's, dated March 1, 1862, "Col. Jennison has been Col of his regiment six months and has yet to give the first command to them. I have always commanded them. Therefore, on the basis of his own testimony, as well as other evidence, Anthony deserves most of the "credit" for the operations of the Jayhawkers in Missouri. He himself admitted as much when, in writing to a brother about Jennison's arrest, he remarked uneasily that if Jennison were brought to trial for "his Missouri policy," then “we are all in the same boat.”
It is difficult to assess precisely and completely the personal motives which lay behind the conduct of Jennison, Montgomery, Lane, and Anthony in Missouri. With Jennison it was probably a desire primarily for the profits of plunder: in one instance he is reported as selling his loot at a public auction. As for Montgomery, while the plunder motive was present, it seems that he was a sincere, if unscrupulous, antislavery zealot. Lane and Anthony, however, although doubtlessly abolitionists, were impelled mainly by military and political ambition. This was especially true of Lane, who hoped to become President with radical backing and who declared to the New England abolitionist, George L. Stearns, that if given the chance he would march to New Orleans, "stirring up slave insurrections on the way."
Kansans generally approved the forays of the jayhawkers through the border counties of Missouri. Their growing antislavery fervor caused them to applaud the slave-liberating aspect of these operations, especially since the freed Negroes relieved the labor shortage in Kansas. True, exaggerated, and false reports of outrages suffered by Kansans and Missouri Unionists at the hands of Missouri secessionists seemed to warrant retaliation in kind. In addition, the people of Kansas had a distorted concept of the object and nature of the activities of Lane, Jennison, Anthony, and James H. Lane. They believed that their campaigns and raids were designed to put down "treason" and guard against invasion, while the newspaper correspondents who accompanied Lane's brigade and the Seventh Kansas wrote up the supposedly heroic exploits of these commands and either ignored or glossed over the looting and killing. Finally, there was a rather sizeable element in Kansas which out of economic and moral poverty was quite willing to advocate and practice the plundering of the farmers of western Missouri, who had "a dangerous reputation for wealth.”
The majority of Kansans tended to classify all Missourians, at least those living in the border counties, as rebels. This viewpoint ran counter to the facts and largely reflected prejudice, ignorance, and a desire to rationalize the depredations in Missouri. Probably from one-third to over one-half of the people residing in western Missouri were loyal to the Union or at least neutral in 1861. One of the main results of the raids of Lane and Anthony was to turn many of these Unionists and neutralists into Confederates. By the end of 1861 Major General Henry W. Halleck, then in command of all Union armies west of the Mississippi, expressed the opinion that a few more such raids would make Missouri "as Confederate as Eastern Virginia.”
Another serious consequence of the jayhawking incursions was that they transformed the already existent animosity of the people of western Missouri toward Kansas into an embittered and impassioned hatred. This feeling was not confined to pro-Confederate Missourians, but it also affected pro-Unionists. On at least one occasion Missouri State Militia in Federal service warned that they would fire on Kansas soldiers if they did not stay on their side of the line. By the spring of 1862 the situation along the border was so tense that Brigadier General John M. Schofield, commander of the Department of Missouri, feared "open hostility between the Union troops of Kansas and Missouri."
Scores, perhaps hundreds, of Missourians in the country devastated by Lane, Jennison, and Anthony formed guerrilla bands or joined the Confederate army. The force under Upton Hayes which Anthony encountered on the Little Blue had been raised in the locality to defend it against Jennison. Hayes was a freighter engaged in the Santa Fe trade when the war began, operating out of the town of Little Santa Fe near Kansas City. He turned bushwhacker after jayhawkers captured one of his wagon trains, burgled his house, and took his cattle, horses, carriages, and slaves. The famous Cole Younger similarly "took to the brush" when Jennison's men robbed and killed his father, who had been pro-Union. Far from stamping out such bands as Hayes', the marches of Lane and Anthony served only to increase their number and intensify their desire for vengeance.
Early in the spring of 1862 a gang of bushwhackers made a shockingly brutal raid on the little village of Aubry in Johnson County, Kansas. The
Membership in the State Historical
Society of Missouri, publisher of the
raiders not only took horses and other property, but they shot down helpless civilians in cold blood. Their leader had a strange, sinister-sounding name: Quantrill. The seed sowed by Lane at Osceola and by Jennison and Anthony in Jackson County would be harvested by this man at Lawrence.
S. J. Reader to “Frank,” June 2, 1861, Kansas Historical Quarterly, IX (February 1940), 33; John Ingalls to “Father,” May 15, 1861, William E. Connelley, editor, “Some Ingalls Letters.” Kansas Historical Collections, XIV (1910-1918), 122; Charles Robinson to Mrs. Charles Robinson, June 17, 1861, Charles and Sara T. D. Robinson Papers, State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas; Floyd C. Shoemaker, “Missouri's Proslavery Fight for Kansas, 1854-18:15,” Missouri Historical Review, XLVIII (April-July 1954), 221-36,325-40, XLIX (October 1954), 41-54.
A good brief account of the secession crisis in Missouri is Edward Conrad Smith, The Borderland in the Civil War (New York, 1927), 240-60.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, June 18, August 4, 1861; “Military History of Kansas Regiments,” Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kansas, 1861-1865 (Topeka, 1896), 73.
James Montgomery to George L. Stearns, June 21, 1861, James Montgomery Papers, State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.
Leavenworth Daily Times, June 9, 18, 23, 1861; Kansas City Western Journal of Commerce, June 14, 15, 16, 20, 1861.
Montgomery to Stearns, June 26, July 5, 1861, George L. Stearns Papers, State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.
Kansas City Western Journal of Commerce, July 25, August 12, 1861.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, July 11, 17, 27, 30, August 20, 1861; Atchison Freedom's Champion, August 10, 1861; Elwood Free Press, August 10, 1861; Lawrence Kansas State Journal, August 8, 15, 1861; Lawrence Republican, July 17, 1861; White Cloud Kansas Chief, September 5, 1861; Olathe Mirror, June 27, July 25, 1861.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, August 16, 1861. Lane had been appointed a brigadier general by President Lincoln but had been forced to relinquish the commission or else resign his Senate seat. However, he possessed a brigadier general's commission from the Governor of Indiana and signed his military correspondence and was addressed by the Federal military authorities as “Brigadier General.”
The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, D. C., 1881-1901), Series I, III, 162, 185; LIII, 435-36. (This publication henceforth shall be cited as O. R.).
Ibid., III, 163-64, 475; A. T. Andrews, History of the State of Kansas (Chicago, 1883), 1,071.
O. R., Ser. I, III, 485, 490; Jacob Stringfellow (Nicholas Verres Smith), “Jim Lane,” Lippincott’s Magazine, V (March 1870), 274. Lane's men are charged with committing murders and molesting women in the following sources: Charles Robinson, The Kansas Conflict (Lawrence, Kansas, 1898), 447; John McCorkle, Three Years with Quantrill (Armstrong, Missouri, 1915), 10-11, 75; William H. Gregg, “The Gregg Manuscript”, (State Historical Society, Columbia, Missouri), 48, 62; John C. Shea, compiler, Reminiscences of Quantrell's Raid upon the City of Lawrence, Kas. (Kansas City, Missouri, 1879), 5; Council Grove Press, September 14, 1863.
O. R., Ser. I, III, 196; Henry E. Palmer, “The Black-flag Character of the war on the Border,” K. H. C., IX (1905-1906), 456; W. S. Drought, “James Montgomery,” ibid., VI (1897-1900), 243; John Speer, “The Burning of Osceola, Mo., by Lane, and the Quantrill Massacre Contrasted,” ibid., 306-308; Robinson, Kansas Conflict, 452-54; William E. Connelley, Quantrill and the Border Wars (Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1910), 199-200.
Lawrence Kansas State Journal, November 28, 1861; White Cloud Kansas Chief, October 6, 1864. One of Quantrill's men who participated in the Lawrence Raid of August 21, 1863, wrote years later that the raiders found three pianos in the parlor of Lane's home in Lawrence, two of which were recognized as having belonged to Southern people in Missouri. See McCorkle, Three Years with Quantrill, 87.
Congressional Globe, 37th Cong., 1st Sess., 187.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, October 8, 9, 1861.
Montgomery to Stearns, July 26, 1861, Stearns Papers.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, September 20, 1861.
Ibid., November 21, 1861.
O. R., Ser. I, III, 559, 748; James G. Blunt, “General Blunt's Account of His Civil war Experiences,” Kansas Historical Quarterly, I (May 1932), 216-17.
Kansas City Western Journal of Commerce, August 9, 1861; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, August 21, 1861; Robinson, Kansas Conflict, 434-35.
William A. Lyman, “Origin of the Name 'jayhawker' and How It Came To Be Applied to the People of Kansas,” K. H. C., XIV (1915-1918), 206-07; Simon M. Fox, “The Story of the Seventh Kansas,” ibid., VIII (1903-1904), 27.
Ibid., 19-23, 26. Cleveland resigned his commission on November 1, following a quarrel with Anthony.
Anthony to Aaron Anthony, March 1, 1862, Daniel R. Anthony Papers, State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, November 10, 12, 13, 1861; Anthony to “Father,” November 5, 1861, Anthony Papers.
War Diary of Fletcher Pomeroy (typewritten copy of the original MS, State Historical Society, Topeka, Kansas), 15. Pomeroy was a member of John Brown, Jr.'s company. This section of his diary was written in a summary fashion and is not under chronological headings.
Anthony to “Father,” November 24, 1861, Anthony Papers. In this letter Anthony states that one of his men was to be shot for having stolen some property.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, November 19, 1861
George Caleb Bingham to James S. Rollins and William A. Hall, February 12, 1862, M. H. R. XXXIII (October 1938), 52.
Pomeroy Diary, 18.
Anthony to “Father,” December 22, 1861, Anthony Papers.
Anthony to “Sister,” February 3, 1862, Anthony Papers.
Hunter to Anthony, January 20, 1862, O. R., Ser. I, VIII, 508.
Anthony to “Brother,” April 25, 1862, Anthony Papers.
Jennison to George L. Stearns, April 21, 1862, Stearns Papers; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, April 8, 30, June 3, 1862.
Anthony to Aaron Anthony, March 1, 1862, Anthony Papers.
Pomeroy Diary, 34; Fox, “Seventh Kansas,” K. H. C., VIII, 24, 27-30.
Anthony to “Brother,” April 25, 1862, Anthony Papers.
Leavenworth Daily Conservative, January 12, 1862.
Theodosius Botkin, “Among the Sovereign Squats,” K. H. C., VII (1901-1903), 433; John N. Edwards, Noted Guerrillas, or the Warfare on the Border (St. Louis, 1877), 38.
Frank L. Stearns, The Life and Public Services of George Luther Stearns (New York, 1907), 251-52.
The above discussion of the Kansas attitude toward jayhawking raids in Missouri is based on a complete survey of the Kansas press of the period and of other contemporary records.
Wiley Britton, Memoirs of the Rebellion on the Border—1863 (Chicago, 1882), 114-18; William L. Webb, Battles and Biographies of Missourians (Kansas City, Missouri, 1900), 263.
O. R., Ser. I, VIII, 449-50, 507-08, 819; III, 742-43.
Ibid., 433-35, 457-461, 467-68; XXII, Part I, 798-801, 808, 824.
Webb, Battles and Biographies, 324; Leavenworth Daily Conservative, November 13, 26, 1861; George Miller, Missouri's Memorable Decade, 1860-1870 (Columbia, 1898), 76, 89; A. Birdsall, The History of Jackson County, Missouri (Kansas City, 1881), 208-09, 271-73; W. Z. Hickman, History of Jackson County, Mo. (Topeka, 1920), 208-09, 214, 299; Pomeroy Diary, 16; Bingham to James S. Rollins, M. H. R., XXXIII, 46.
O. R., Ser. I, VIII, 335-36.
Article ©1959-2004 Albert E. Castel
Page, introduction, graphics ©2004 G. E. Rule/D. H. Rule
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