Posted November 7, 2002

 

General Nathaniel Lyon and Missouri in 1861

by James Peckham, 1866

Introduction
Sumter

Part I - Part II - Part III

Camp Jackson

Part I - Part II - Part III

The Harney Regime

Part I - Part II - Part III

Wilson's Creek

Part I - Part II - Part III

Appendix

Part I - Part II - Part III

Return to Civil War St. Louis

 

GEN. NATHANIEL LYON

AND

MISSOURI IN 1861.

 BOOK II.

 Camp Jackson. (Part I)

Illustrations on this page not from original text

 

CONTENTS—THE RESPONSE OF CLAIB JACKSON—RETURN OF MR. BLAIR-RESIGNATION OF MILITIA OFFICERS—SATURDAY AND SUNDAY, APRIL 20 AND 21—THE ARSENAL RE-ENFORCED BY VOLUNTEERS—PROJECT TO BRIBE THE COMMANDER AT LEAVENWORTH—THE FIRST REMOVAL OF GENERAL HARNEY—ORGANIZATION OF THE FIRST FOUR REGIMENTS—GOVERNOR JACKSON'S PROCLAMATION AND ORDER—JACKSON ASKS MONEY OF THE BANKS—EXCITEMENT OVER THE REMOVAL OF ARMS—ATTACK UPON THE STREET CARS—SUPPRESSION OF A CIRCUIT COURT—ORGANIZATION OF HOME GUARDS—TRANSFER OF GUNS TO ILLINOIS—ROLL OF HONOR—LYON BUSILY EMPLOYED—LINDELL GROVE—ORGANIZATION OF CAMP JACKSON TROOPS—STOLEN ARMS FROM BATON ROUGE—LYON PRIVATELY DECLARES HIS PURPOSE—LYON VISITS CAMP JACKSON—THE SAFETY COMMITTEE IN SESSION—THE ORDER FOR HORSES—EXCITING RUMORS—TENTH OF MAY, 1861—LETTER FROM GENERAL FROST—CAPTURE OF CAMP JACKSON—THE CATASTROPHE AFTER THE SURRENDER—OFFICIAL STATEMENT OF LYON CONCERNING THE FIRING AT CAMP JACKSON—LIST OF THE DEAD—SECESSION MOB—CHIEF OF POLICE MCDONOUGH—THE STATE JOURNAL IN A RAGE—MAYOR'S PROCLAMATION—PROPERTY CAPTURED AT THE CAMP—FLIGHT OF STERLING PRICE—SECESSION EXCITEMENT OF MAY 11—MOB ATTACK ON THE HOME GUARDS—JEFFERSON CITY, MAY, 1861—PANIC IN THE LEGISLATURE—BRIDGE BURNING—LEGISLATION UNDER DIFFICULTIES—JACKSON IN A FRIGHT—THE GREAT SCARE AT JEFFERSON.

THE RESPONSE OF JACKSON TO THE CALL FOR TROOPS.

The President of the United States called for seventy-five thousand volunteers, and Missouri was notified to furnish her quota. Governor Jackson immediately telegraphed to the Government that "Missouri would not furnish a single man to subjugate her sister States of the South." In this Jackson made a great fool of himself, for St. Louis was burning with patriotic ardor, and was craving the glorious privilege of herself furnishing double the number necessary to fill the quota.

The Secretary of War, disregarding the telegram of the Governor, forwarded the official demand for the quota of the State, according to legal estimate. The Governor returned the following answer, a copy of which he telegraphed to the State Journal, the secession organ in St. Louis, and which appeared in the issue of that paper of April 17:

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT OF MISSOURI,

JEFFERSON CITY, April 17, 1861.

To Hon. Simon CAMERON, Secretary of War, Washington City

SIR—Your dispatch of the 15th inst., making a call on Missouri for four regiments of men for immediate service, has been received. There can be, I apprehend, no doubt but these men are intended to form a part of the present army to make war upon the people of the seceded States. Your requisition, in my judgment, is illegal, unconstitutional, and revolutionary; In its objects inhuman and diabolical, and cannot be complied with. Not one man will the State of Missouri furnish to carry on such an unholy crusade.

C. F. JACKSON,

Governor of Missouri.

RETURN OF MR. BLAIR.

Frank P. Blair, Jr., returned to St. Louis from Washington on the 17th of April, and gladdened the hearts of loyal men by assuring them of the determination of the Government to use the last man and the last dollar, if necessary, to crush out the rebellion in the seceded States. He represented the patriotic enthusiasm of the people along the entire line of his recent travel as truly wonderful. Upon learning the attitude of the Governor, he telegraphed at once to Washington, offering to raise immediately four regiments for active duty, and urging their acceptance and the appointment of an officer to muster them into the service. That there might be no failure in securing the attention of the Government to this matter, as well as to the general wants of the loyalists of Missouri, Captain Barton Able visited Washington City, for the purpose of representing Missouri affairs to the President and Cabinet. Mr. Blair also advised those officers of the militia who called upon him and announced their desire to identify themselves with the Union, to withdraw from the Jackson militia at once. He also advised the immediate recruiting of companies, and inspired confidence of their speedy muster. It is true, and in justice should be said, that Mr. Blair in that day was himself a host. Wherever loyal men met in council, he was there; whenever loyal men received the word of command, it was from him. The rank and file had not yet learned to rely upon Nathaniel Lyon; but the drama is rapidly progressing, and in a few days they will be brought under his more immediate care.

RESIGNATION OF MILITIA OFFICERS.

On the 17th of April, Major Schaeffer, and on the 18th Colonel John N. Pritchard, Surgeon Florence M. Cornyn, and Adjutant John S. Cavender, peremptorily resigned. In his letter of resignation Major Schaeffer used the following language:

"I cannot reconcile it with my ideas of military fealty and discipline, that a part of your command has hoisted another flag than the only true flag of these United States."

This patriotic sentiment was pronounced by General Frost to be "conduct unworthy of on officer and a gentleman," and upon such a charge that officer, in command of the First Military District of Missouri, ordered a court-martial to try the Major. It may be interesting to know the names of the persons constituting that court. I give them:

Colonel Alton R. Easton, President of the Court; Lieutenant-Colonel John Knapp, Lieutenant-Colonel John S. Bowen, Major James R. Shaler, Captain Joseph Kelly, Captain George W. West, Captain William Wade, Captain Martin Burke, Captain Charles S. Rogers, Captain William B. Hazeltine, Captain Charles H. Fredericks, Captain Henry W. Williams, Judge-Advocate.

Major Schaeffer refused to acknowledge the order of arrest, and lived to do good service for his country, until at Murfreesboro, at the head of his brigade, in a glorious charge, he died "in the arms of victory."

The letter of Surgeon Cornyn also breathed the purest and loftiest spirit of patriotism. These resignations were followed by a general stampede of the active Union men of the rank and file; but there were some, however, who remained only to leave in time for early service in the Union armies.

SATURDAY, APRIL 20, AND SUNDAY, APRIL 21.

LyonOn Saturday, April 20, news reached Captain Lyon that the conspirators had seized the Government arsenal at Liberty, and had carried off all its guns and ammunition. His own friends in the city and the spies of the Safety Committee reported undoubted evidence of an intention on the part of the St. Louis managers to take the arsenal, if they could. The members of the Safety Committee entirely neglected their business on that day, and rendered every assistance in their power to the designs and plans of Lyon. Mr. O. D. Filley met General Harney at the gate of the arsenal during the day, and informed him of the capture of Liberty arsenal. Harney seemed to take very little notice of the information, and, I am informed, affected not to believe it. Mounted patrols were kept constantly moving through various parts of the city, ready to convey to Lyon reports of any unusual movements among any considerable number of citizens. Companies of the Union Guards were on band in their private armories, prepared to move into the arsenal at a moment's notice. In order to avoid creating unnecessary excitement, the entire Union Guard was called at their several places of meeting by private notice, and kept together until a late hour; some companies until after daylight.

That night Sweeney, who commanded at the west gate, with two field-pieces under his charge, concluded, about midnight, to station his men at their respective places, when he ascertained that two had deserted since the last roll-call. Upon further examination he found that the equipments of both his cannon had been taken away. His suspicions fell upon a man whose name appeared on the company roll as Spencer Kellogg, and whose conduct he had secretly criticized on several previous occasions. Obtaining new equipments, he placed them in his tent, and sending for Kellogg, said to him: "Kellogg, when I am absent, you must be here and guard these equipments. Your eyes or mine must be on them all the time; if these are stolen, you or I must be the thief." They were not stolen; and Kellogg's subsequent conduct proved him to be a patriot and a hero. In 1863, Spencer Kellogg was hung in Richmond, Virginia, as a Federal spy. His real name was Spencer Kellogg Brown.

Berthold MansionWhile thus the utmost vigilance was observed at the arsenal on that night of the 20th of April, there was also unusual activity at the headquarters of the minute-men. Mayor Taylor, anxious to preserve the peace, had arranged so he could be notified, at any moment, of any appearances of an extraordinary character. About midnight he was called up, and after receiving information from his visitor, proceeded to the Berthold mansion and knocked for admission. At first it was refused, but he was finally admitted, when he saw a large crowd of men thoroughly armed, and engaged in plotting an attack upon the arsenal. The Mayor earnestly entreated them to retire to their homes, and not attempt such a foolish undertaking, which could only result in their capture or death. Whether the entreaties of the Mayor wrought the change in their intentions I cannot say, but they did not attack the arsenal. The leaders of the party expressed perfect confidence in success should they attempt the seizure of the arsenal, and boasted that they had two spies on duty at the arsenal gate, at that very hour. Certain it is the Safety Committee had a spy in their own camp. Early on the following morning, April 21, Lyon sent to Blair the following:

[BY POLITENESS OF CAPTAIN COLLAMER.]

ST. LOUIS ARSENAL, April 21, 1861.

Dear Sir,—I have no authority for mustering in troops for the Government. This is very important now, and before we are so hemmed in that we cannot help ourselves, which is doubtless the policy of our adversaries. I had supposed the exertions of yourself and friends with the Government at Washington would have effected this by this time.

You will see by the news this morning, that a large supply of arms, ammunition and artillery have fallen into the hands of our foes by their possession of the Liberty arsenal, and they may be turned upon us here soon. You will see also that Captain Steele, at Fort Leavenworth, has accepted volunteers to defend that arsenal and post, and if I had the command proper here, and no interference from General Harney, I would do the same. I have just sent a note to the General, asking him to allow me to accept volunteers, but if he does so, I expect it will be so noised about that they will have to fight their way here.* * * *

N. LYON.

[LATER.]

ST. LOUIS ARSENAL, April 21, 1861.

Hon. F. P. BLAIR, Jr.:

DEAR SIR—I forgot, in writing you by Captain Collamer, to mention that I have authentic information that Lieutenant John M. Schofield, First Artillery, who has for some time past been on leave of absence in St. Louis, has received orders from Washington to muster volunteers into the service. It would be well for some of your people to see and consult him at once. Something should be done, if possible, to-day.

Yours truly,

N. LYON

That same morning Barton Able, John How, Oliver D. Filley, James O. Broadhead, Franklin A. Dick, and one or two others, whose names are not remembered, were with Mr. Blair at his residence on Washington avenue, in conference as to the best means to adopt for self-protection in the threatening crisis. The second note from Lyon was brought in at about church-time, and it was resolved to at once hunt up Schofield. Filley, Broadhead and How, started out upon the search, and first visited Dr. Nelson's church on Fourteenth street. Schofield, who was a professor in the Washington University, was quite well known, but he was not in the church. The committee then proceeded down Olive street toward Dr. Eliot's church, but before going any great distance they met Professor S. B. Waterhouse, of the same University with Lieut. Schofield, and from him learned that the latter was at the church on the corner of Seventeenth and Olive streets. Thither they proceeded, found Schofield, and took him over to Mr. Blair's. Schofield was himself impressed with the necessity of prompt action, and consented to go immediately to the arsenal and comply with Captain Lyon's wishes. Mr. Blair had just received a reply to his dispatches to Washington, offering four regiments, the Secretary of War telegraphing their acceptance; but when Schofield reached the arsenal he found himself hampered by the orders of General Harney, prohibiting the entrance of volunteers into the arsenal, and also their subsistence and arming. Lieut. Schofield, accompanied by Lieut. Saxton, returned to Mr. Blair's house with the following note from Captain Lyon:

ST. LOUIS ARSENAL, April 21, 1861.

Dear Sir—Mr. Schofield has no authority to arm and equip these men, if he enrolls them, nor are any instructions given about the location and disposal of them and without the sanction of General Harney to this matter, we are liable to serious difficulty, as the General may, on hearing what is transpiring, order my arrest, even while trying to arm the men, for violating his orders about issuing arms; and as he has the rank and authority he may direct the volunteer force away or to disperse. We do not seem to be starting out right with the instructions Mr. Schofield now has. Lieutenants Saxton and Schofield will explain more fully what I have not time to write.

Yours truly,

N. LYON.

Mr. Blair, in company with Lieut. Schofield, called upon General Harney, but the General refused to countermand his order. Blair then returned to his house, and sending for Mr. Lucien Barnes, a loyal telegrapher, gave him the following telegram to forward at once to its destination

ST. LOUIS, April 21, 1861.

Governor A. G. CURTIN, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

An officer of the army here, has received an order to muster in Missouri regiments. General Harney refuses to let them remain in the arsenal grounds or permit them to be armed. I wish these facts to be communicated to the Secretary of War by special messenger, and instructions sent immediately to Harney to receive the troops at the arsenal, and arm them. Our friends distrust Harney very much. He should be superseded immediately by putting another commander in this district. The object of the secessionists is to seize the arsenal here, with its seventy-five thousand stand of arms, and he refuses the means of defending it. We have plenty of men, but no arms.

FRANK P. BLAIR, Jr..

In order to avoid betrayal in the St. Louis telegraph office, Mr. Blair requested Barnes to cross the river on the ferry, and forward the dispatch from the East St Louis office.

I must not neglect to say that Mr. Blair had procured an order for five thousand guns, to be given to Lyon to arm loyal men with, in case of actual necessity, for the defense of the arsenal and the lives of Union men. This order Harney managed to render a nullity, and on the afternoon of the 14th of April, Mr. Blair had dispatched Dr. Hazlett to Washington with the following letter, addressed to Montgomery Blair, the Postmaster-General

ST. LOUIS, April 19, 1861.

Dear Judge—Dr. Hazlett will hand you this letter. He goes to Washington for the purpose of urging the removal of General Harney from this post, and giving us some one to command who will not obstruct the orders of Government intended for our assistance. Harney has issued orders, at the instance of the secessionists, refusing to allow us to have the guns which the Government had ordered to be given to us. We also want an order to Captain Lyon to swear in the four regiments assigned to Missouri. I have already written and telegraphed to this effect; but in these days we do not know what to rely upon, and therefore we have deemed it advisable to send a special messenger. If you will send General Wool, or some one who is not to be doubted, to take command in this district, and designate an officer to swear in our volunteers, and arm the rest of our people, who are willing to act as a civic or home guard, I think we shall be able to hold our ground here. But the man sent to supersede Harney should reach here before Harney is apprised of his removal; and the order to swear in our volunteers should come as soon as possible, and should be sent to Lyon by telegraph, if not already sent, and should be repeated, even if the order has been sent already. I consider these matters of vital importance, otherwise would not urge them upon your attention. I ask you to see Cameron immediately in regard to the business.

Yours,

FRANK P. BLAIR, JR.

Having thus dispatched to Washington the condition of affairs, Mr. Blair visited Lyon at the arsenal. Mr. O. D. Filley, Mr. How, and Mr. Broadhead were already there, and it was the conclusion of all that the arsenal must be reinforced that evening, whether Harney should consent or not. The details were all arranged, and the above-named gentlemen departed to fulfill them. Later in the day Captain Lyon wrote the following to Mr. Blair:

April 21, 1861

Hon. F. P BLAIR, Jr.:

DEAR SIR—I have your note of this day per Mr. Bayles, and I have agreed with him that it will be well to have the companies come in at the gate at the middle of the board fence on the river, and from half-past seven to half-past eight o'clock this evening. This, of course, is with the understanding that Lieut. Schofield will at once accept them, and be prepared to arm and equip them. I suppose he has this authority, though if not I must see them armed at any rate. The company officers must be admitted quietly beforehand, at the main gate on Carondelet avenue, and be ready to recognize their own men on admittance. All should bring a little something to eat, so as not to suffer before we get ready to feed them.

Yours truly,

N. LYON.

THE ARSENAL RE-ENFORCED BY VOLUNTEERS.

On the night of the 21st of April, several hundred selected volunteers, men all known to their already chosen officers, who stood at the gate, were admitted to the arsenal, and provided with arms. Not only was this personal identity required, but a strip of ribbon, on which was an impress in wax of Captain Lyon's private seal, had previously been distributed, and was taken up at the gate.

PROJECT TO BRIBE THE COMMANDANT AT LEAVENWORTH.

The rebels about this time dispatched a delegation, headed by Marmaduke, to Fort Leavenworth, for the purpose of bribing the officer in command at that post to betray his trust. The sum of $25,000 was placed at the disposal of Marmaduke to effect this purpose, and the money was drawn from some of the St. Louis banks, and the branch bank at Arrow Rock. The Safety Committee, fully advised of this projected visit to Fort Leavenworth, had one of their spies to accompany the party. The spy was in the whole secret from its inception, but became the manager, and was put forward by Marmaduke to approach the Leavenworth commander with the bribe.

It was thought advisable to notify the commandant at Fort Leavenworth, in advance of the arrival of this party, and therefore Mr. Giles F. Filley dispatched two letters to Mr. Lyman Allen, of Lawrence, Kansas, urging him to go over to Fort Leavenworth, advise the commander of what was going on, and insist upon his capturing the party so soon as they had offered the bribe, take the money from them, and then let them go. One of these letters Mr. Filley sent by the way of Fort Scott, and the other via St. Joseph. Marmaduke went first to Arrow Rock, to get five thousand dollars from that bank, and then proceeded to Leavenworth. But Mr. Allen had already been there, and informed Major Hagner of the contents of his letter. When the conspirators appeared at the fort, Major Hagner informed them that their purposes were already known, and that they had better get away. Of course they got away, and took all their money with them.

THE FIRST REMOVAL OF HARNEY.

[From the Missouri Democrat, April 24, 1861.]

"General Harney left yesterday afternoon for Washington City, in obedience to orders from the Secretary of War."

This was the result of Harney's refusal to aid Lyon and Blair; and now Lyon was supreme. Blair was constantly with him at the arsenal, rendering him every assistance, and in every instance a counselor and a confidant Mr. Blair had, on the 21st, in anticipation of earnest work, sent his family out of town, out of regard for their personal safety. Gangs of ruffians were in the habit of passing his house, yelling obscene expressions, and in one or two instances throwing missiles at the building. The whole hate and fury of secession bigotry and intolerance seemed directed toward this great leader, and in every rumor they mingled his name. Himself disregarded all their malignity and abuse, and pursued the work of assisting Lyon at every important step taken.

ORGANIZATION OF THE FOUR REGIMENTS UNDER THE FIRST CALL

The recall of Harney was equivalent to the acquisition of four regiments to the Federal army. Within as many days the four regiments were full and mustered. Blair, Boernstein, Sigel, and Schuttner were respectively their commanders, and each labored with admirable zeal to select the very best material out of the multitudes offering. When these regiments were crowded to the maximum, there was material enough for a regiment or two more. It was the desire of the officers to choose Colonel Blair as their Brigade-General, but Blair would not listen to it, and explained the necessity of conferring that honor upon Captain Lyon. Lyon in turn insisted upon Blair complying with the desires of his command, and expressed anxiety to continue in the service under his lead; but Colonel Blair explained his intention of remaining less prominent, in order to avoid driving a single man from the cause because of former political animosity; and besides, he proclaimed the superiority of Lyon as an officer bred to arms, and pre-eminently fit for the position. The affair ended by Lyon being elected General of the brigade. This was insisted upon by Mr. Blair in order that Lyon might not be in the position of a subordinate commanding his superiors in rank, and Lyon thenceforward assumed the position of General, though not the title, until after Camp Jackson he was regularly appointed by the Government.

GOVERNOR JACKSON'S PROCLAMATION AND ORDER.

On the 22d of April appeared the proclamation of Claib Jackson, summoning the Legislature to meet in the State capitol, on the 2d of May, in extraordinary session. Accompanying the proclamation he also issued an order for the militia of the State to assemble in their respective military districts on the 3d of May, and go into encampment for the period of six days, as provided by law. The reply of the Governor to the President and to the Secretary of War—the proclamation and order above stated—the known correspondence of the conspirators at Jefferson City with secessionists all over the State, and with leading rebels in the South, then openly in arms against the Union, gave a front to secession which was very attractive to the young and the adventurous, to say nothing of the narrow-minded and the bigoted.

JACKSON ASKS MONEY OF THE BANKS.

While ordering the State militia into camps, Claib Jackson knew the absolute necessity of providing them with arms in the event of his needing their help. He therefore made a proposition to the banks in St. Louis to permit him to use the $50,000 they were to furnish to meet the July interest, to arm the State militia. With one exception the banks acceded to the proposition.

EXCITEMENT OVER THE REMOVAL OF ARMS.

On the 26th of April Hagner shipped six hundred arms on board the steamer Pocahontas, to be delivered to the State authorities of Kentucky, at Louisville. These arms had been sent to the St. Louis arsenal for repairs, and Hagner saw proper to return them. The spies of the minute-men, who were unceasingly vigilant, learned of the intended shipment, and magnified the story concerning them. The excited minute-men rushed to the captain of the Pocahontas, and by threats and boasts so filled him with fear that he ordered the guns off his boat, and left them upon the levee, and at once started upon his trip. The police took possession of the property. Through some unknown authority, these guns, at 11 o'clock the same night, were placed on a dray, and ordered on board the steamboat Julius H. Smith, for shipment to Governor Harris, of Tennessee, at Nashville. The minute-men at that hour were on the alert. Not knowing the destination of the weapons, they were determined to stop their shipment. A crowd seized the dray when near the levee, and commenced moving up Pine street, with the intention of taking them to the Berthold mansion. As they neared Third street, a party of thirty policemen overhauled the highwaymen, and took the guns to the steamer they were intended for. It was said the crowd were informed of the true destination of the guns by a Police Commissioner, before they were thoroughly content to surrender without a fight.

ATTACK UPON THE STREET CARS BY MINUTE-MEN.

On the night of Thursday, April 25, there was a large gathering of minute-men at the Berthold mansion, and at the "Mercantile saloon," on Locust street near. Fifth street, one block from the former place. A rumor had been circulated to the effect that Captain Lyon intended to use the Fifth street cars in transporting some arms to the Tenth Ward Union men. About nine o'clock, four cars, closely following, were seen coming up Fifth street. When near Locust, a crowd rushed into the foremost car and began looking for the anticipated guns. But save a few citizens and a German Federal officer with his sword at his side, they found nothing. The sword was seized from the aforesaid Federal, and, amid cheers and yells, was taken as a trophy to the aforesaid saloon.

SUPPRESSION OF JUDGE JACKSON'S COURT BY THE SECESH.

In Southeast Missouri, where Judge Albert Jackson was endeavoring to hold the stated session of the Circuit Court, a party of secessionists took possession of the offices of the Sheriff and the County Clerk of Dallas county, and refused to permit Judge Jackson to hold court. The excuse for this conduct was that the Judge, in consideration of the fact that he was surrounded by traitors, had declared no attorney should practice before him without renewing his oath of loyalty to the United States Government.

ORGANIZATION OF THE HOME GUARDS.

It was very evident to Captain Lyon that the Government at Washington did not fully realize the nature of the crisis then threatening its existence, else there would have been a much greater number of troops called for and for a much greater length of time. He was conscious of the fact that Missouri alone would require four times the number allowed her if she proposed maintaining equality with the rebel recruits in her midst. He had no sooner signified his readiness to receive and arm the four regiments accepted by the Government than some six thousand men rushed to the arsenal for admission. After the four regiments had been mustered to their maximum, Lyon took upon himself the responsibility of quartering a fifth upon the Government, relying upon Colonel Blair for his influence in having it accepted.

In conversation with the Safety Committee, Lyon divulged the plan of making Springfield the outpost of St. Louis, in case of imminent danger from the rebels in the State. St. Louis would require a strong force to restrain refractory secessionists, and protect the immense Government and private property then within its limits. The plan of arming the truly loyal men for this latter purpose was adopted, and the Government was besieged for the necessary authority. This was granted; and the authority reached Lyon on the 4th of May. He immediately issued the following:

ST. LOUIS ARSENAL, May 4, 1861.

Colonel Chester Harding has authority to proceed with the organization of regiments, to be enrolled in the United States service, for the defense of the loyal citizens of St. Louis, and protecting the property and enforcing the laws of the United States.

N. LYON,

Captain Second Infantry, commanding.

It will be seen the authority given to Colonel Harding bears date of May 4. The energy and the efficiency of Colonel Harding, and the usefulness of that organization which was originated in January, and which had preserved the city and the arsenal during the intervening months, were soon displayed in a remarkably speedy completion of the five regiments allowed by the administration. The new organization was called the "United States Reserve Corps," but it is known better as "Home Guards," and as such I Shall hereafter designate it. The Fifth Regiment of Volunteers was regularly mustered into the service by order from Washington. On the 7th of May, the First Regiment Home Guards, made up of residents of the First Ward; on the morning of the 8th, the Second Regiment, from the Second Ward; at 4, P.M., the same day, the Third Regiment, from the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Wards; at 9, P.M., same day, the Fourth Regiment, from the Seventh and Eighth Wards, were all mustered in and armed. These regiments established their quarters as follows: The First, Colonel Almstedt, in Yaeger's Garden; the Second, Colonel Kallman, on Chouteau avenue; the Third, Colonel John McNeil, at Turner Hall; the Fourth, Colonel B. Gratz Brown, at Bechner's Garden, on Fifth street. On Saturday, May 11, Colonel Stifel's Fifth Regiment was mustered in, and established its quarters in the Tenth Ward.

The commissioned officers of these regiments elected Captain Thomas W. Sweeney their brigade commander, and he was at once recognized as such. Colonel Harding continued upon the staff of General Lyon as his Adjutant-General, and through his excellent judgment and eminent legal ability became of vast necessity to his chief.

TRANSFER OF SURPLUS GUNS TO ILLINOIS.

Having provided for arming the five thousand volunteers and five thousand Home Guards ordered by the Secretary of War, Lyon thought it necessary to secure the balance beyond all danger of treachery or capture, and with that object in view, on the night of the 26th of April, the steamer "City of Alton" dropped down to the arsenal, and received on board between twenty thousand and thirty thousand stand of arms. A company of the First Missouri (volunteers), commanded by Captain George H. Stone, was detailed to guard the boat and property to Alton, to which place the guns were safely taken, and forwarded thence to Springfield. On the night of May 1 the same steamer performed another mission to Alton from the arsenal, securely transferring some ten thousand pounds of powder to a magazine of loyal Illinois.

As was to be expected, the secesh soon became aware of these movements, and were loud in their abuse of Lyon and Blair, whom they boasted would soon become fugitives from the "sacred soil."

THE ROLL OF HONOR.

I give herewith the roster of officers of the several regiments (volunteer and Home Guard) who sprang to arms, at the first call of the President, for their country's defense:

FIRST REGIMENT OF MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Frank P. Blair, Jr. . . . . . Colonel.

George L. Andrews . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

John M. Schofield . . . . . . Major.

Henry Hescock . . . . . . Adjutant.

Herbert M. Draper . . . . . Quartermaster.

Florence M. Cornyn . . . . . Surgeon.

William Simon . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

Company A. — Rufus Saxton, Captain; William A. Cordon, First Lieutenant; Ernst W. Decker, Second Lieutenant.

Company B. — M. L. Lothrop, Captain; Benjamin Taumatie, First Lieutenant; John L. Matthai, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — G. Harry Stone, Captain; Marshall, First Lieutenant; John H. Tiemeyer, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — Charles Anderson, Captain ; S. O. Fish, First Lieutenant; Fulton H. Johnson, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — Robert B. Beck, Captain; John McFaul, First Lieutenant; William D. Bowen, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — Cary Gratz, Captain; William T. Stewart, First Lieutenant; George Meyers, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — John S. Cavender, Captain; Frederick Welker, First Lieutenant; Charles S.

Sheldon, Second Lieutenant.

Company H. — Theodore Yates, Captain; Francis H. Manter, First Lieutenant; Thomas Haynes, Second Lieutenant.

Company L. —Madison Miller, Captain; David Murphy, First Lieutenant; James Marr, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — Patrick E. Burke, Captain; E. W. Weber, First Lieutenant; Edward Madison, Second Lieutenant.

SECOND REGIMENT OF MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS.

(Three months' service.)

No papers concerning this regiment have been filed in the Adjutant-General's office.

FIELD AND STAFF.

Henry Boernstein . . . . . Colonel.

Fred. Schaeffer . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

B. Laibold . . . . . . . Major.

THIRD REGIMENT OF MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Franz Sigel . . . . . . . Colonel.

Albert Anselm . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

Henry Bishoff . . . . . . Major.

Gustav Heinrichs . . . . . Adjutant.

Sebas Engert . . . . . . Quartermaster.

Frederick Haussler . . . . . Surgeon.

Charles Ludwig . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

Company A (Rifles). — Joseph Indest, Captain; Leopold Hemle, First Lieutenant; William Roemer, Second Lieutenant.

Company A. — John F. Cramer, Captain; William Osterhorn, First Lieutenant; Charles Weistney, Second Lieutenant.

Company B — (Rifles). Henry Zeis, Captain; Joseph Fries, First Lieutenant; Peter Steven, Second Lieutenant.

Company B. — Joseph Conrad, Captain; William Mettmaun, First Lieutenant; George Demde, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — Jacob Hartmann, Captain; Henry Bishoff, First Lieutenant; Z. Heckenlaner, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — Aug. Hackman, Captain; Liverott Danner, First Lieutenant; Stephen Tehl, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — ——Captain; ——, First Lieutenant; August Schaerff, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — C. Blandowski (killed at Camp Jackson), Captain; Hugh Gollmer, First Lieutenant; Aug. William Busche, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — Adolph Dengler, Captain; Charles Hoenny, First Lieutenant; Edward Krebe, Second Lieutenant.

Company H. — Geo. D. Friedlein, Captain ; ——, First Lieut.; George Marschall, Second Lieut.

Company L. — Charles H. Mannhardt, Captain; H. Klostermann, First Lieutenant; J. Briesner, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — Theodore Menmann, Captain; Theodore Henck, First Lieutenant; George Schuster, Second Lieutenant.

FOURTH REGIMENT OF MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Nicholas Schuttner . . . . . Colonel.

A. Hammer . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

F. Niggerman . . . . . . Major.

S. Homburg . . . . . . Adjutant.

Charles Grison . . . . . . Quartermaster.

Dr. Beck . . . . . . Surgeon.

A. Keosch. . . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

Company A. — George Dahmer, Captain.

Company B. — George Rehman, Captain.

Company C. — Frederick Schuddig, Captain.

Company D. — George Hasfurther, Captain.

Company E. — Theodore Fishback, Captain.

Company F. — George Berg, Captain.

Company G. — Charles Dening, Captain.

Company H. — Philip Frank, Captain.

Company I. — J. Hubbel, Captain.

Company K. — Louis Rohrer, Captain.

Company L. — —— Henry, Captain.

Company M. — —— Weber, Captain.

This regiment was mostly recruited from the January organization of "Black Jaegers."

The foregoing regiments having been filled to the maximum, there were large numbers yet in the arsenal demanding muster. Lyon and Blair besieged the War Department, and obtained privilege to muster in another (Fifth) regiment of volunteers.

FIFTH REGIMENT OF MISSOURI VOLUNTEERS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Charles E. Solomon. . . . . . Colonel.

Chest. Dick Wolff . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

F. W. Cronenbold. . . . . . . Major.

Edward C. Franklin . . . . . Surgeon.

Samuel H. Melcher . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

William Gerlach . . . . . . Adjutant.

Ben. Meisner . . . . . . Quartermaster.

Company B. — Louis Gottschalk, Captain; Emil Wachter, First Lieutenant; William Beng, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — Frederick Solomon, Captain; William Kassak, First Lieutenant; Otto Veme, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — Charles Mehl, Captain; Gustav Laibold, First Lieutenant; Christopher Stork,

Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — Charles Stephany, Captain; James Ballhaus, First Lieutenant; Julius Nehrig, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — Alfred Arnaud, Captain; Rudolph Schneider, First Lieutenant; Emile Thomas, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — C. E. Stark, Captain; Nich. Fuester, First Lieutenant; C. Weiss, Second Lieutenant.

Company H. — W. J. Chester, Captain; J. Coleman, First Lieutenant; S. Morris, Second Lieutenant.

Company I. — Charles P. Meisner, Captain; G. Adam Bauer, First Lieutenant; Joseph

Spiegelhalter, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — S. A. Hogg, Captain; W. S. Boyd, First Lieut. ; W. H. Thompson, Second Lieut.

FIRST REGIMENT UNITED STATES RESERVE CORPS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Henry Almstedt . . . . . . Colonel.

Robert J. Rombauer . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

Phil. J. Brimmer . . . . . . Major.

Emil Seeman . . . . . . Surgeon.

John Heinback . . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

William Waldschmidt . . . . . . Adjutant.

Aug. Leussler . . . . . . . Quartermaster.

Company A. (Cavalry). — Jacob Melter, Captain; John Traber, First Lieutenant; Charles

Wagmann, Second Lieutenant.

Company B. — J. Horn, Captain; E. Mark, First Lieutenant; W. Waldschmidt, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — T. Hildebrandt, Captain; J. H. Vadoarka, First Lieutenant; G. Ost, Second Lieut.

Company D. — Leonard Weindell, Captain; Frederick W. Henkels, First Lieutenant; Peter Schardin, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — George Rothweiler, Captain; Lorenz Liebermann, First Lieutenant; Gustav Garvell, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — William Balz, Captain; William Balz, First Lieutenant; Jacob Remhardt, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — Charles Hartig, Captain; Arnold P. Roeter, First Lieutenant ; George Clemens, First Lieutenant.

Company H. — Joseph Schubert, Captain; Casper Kochler, First Lieutenant; ——, Second

Lieutenant.

Company L. — Herman T. Hasse, Captain; Clemens Gutgesell, First Lieutenant; Fred. Krenning, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — William Hahn, Captain ; Henry Delus, First Lieutenant ; Joseph Witzel, Second Lieutenant.

Company L. — Wm. Prolerman, Captain; Jacob Bischoff, First Lieutenant ; Aug. Leupler, Second Lieutenant.

Company M. — Aug. Eichele, Captain; Charles B. Gutzahr, First Lieutenant; Hern

Lantenseklager, Second Lieutenant.

SECOND REGIMENT UNITED STATES RESERVE CORPS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Herman Kallmann . . . . . . Colonel.

John T. Fiala . . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

Julius Rapp . . . . . . . Major.

Anthony Teitinger . . . . . . Adjutant.

Charles W. Gottschalk. . . . . . Quartermaster.

F. C. Castlehun . . . . . . . Surgeon.

Charles Sprinzig . . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

Company A. — Bernard Essroger, Captain; Herman Bleck, First Lieutenant; Leopold Swanziger, Second Lieutenant

Company B. — Edmund Wurpel, Captain; Joseph Gerwiner, First Lieutenant; Franz Shindler, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — —— Captain; Fred. Mueller, First Lieutenant; Fred. Cratz, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — F. M. Wolke, Captain; Bernhard Klein, First Lieutenant; Fred. Gottschalk, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — Felix Laies, Captain ; Christian Ploesser, First Lieutenant; Philip Michel, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — Theodore Boethelt, Captain; Alexander Windmiller, First Lieutenant; Anthony Ochosky, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — Herman Takrzewski, Captain; Ger. Bensberg, First Lieutenant; Herman Moll, Se and Lieutenant.

Company H. — Charles Goerisck, Captain; Charles Hoppe, First Lieutenant; John Heusack, Second Lieutenant.

Company I. — Jacob Reseck, Captain; John Ruedi, First Lieutenant; Aug. Frohnhaeser, Second Lieutenant.

THIRD REGIMENT UNITED STATES RESERVE CORPS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

John McNeil . . . . . . . Colonel.

Charles A. Fritz . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

Calvin W. Marsh . . . . . . Major.

Samuel P. Simpson . . . . . . . Adjutant.

George E. Leighton . , . . . . Quartermaster.

Ellery P. Smith . . . . . . Surgeon.

Edmund Boemer . . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

Company A. — Charles W. Smith, Captain; H. Rupert Serot; First Lieutenant; H. Wigand, Second Lieutenant.

Company B. — Charles A. Warner, Captain; Fred. Leser, First Lieutenant; ——, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — Tony Niederweiser, Captain; H. P. Fabricius, First Lieutenant; William Hirt, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — Meritt W. Griswold, Captain; William M. Wherry, First Lieutenant; Charles P. Johnson, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — W. A. Hequembourg, Captain; Felix Coste, First Lieutenant; Fritch Carl Adolph, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — Philip Weigel, Captain; John C. Blech, First Lieutenant; Max Kornex, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — George Dominick, Captain; Charles Moeller, First Lieutenant ; Samuel P. Simpson, Second Lieutenant.

 

Company H. — Henry Lischer, Captain; Theodore Kalb, First Lieutenant; Adolph Knipper, Second Lieutenant.

Company I. — Robert Hundhausen, Captain; Louis Duestrow, First Lieutenant; J. Conrad Meyer, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — George A. Rowley, Captain; Edward J. Clark, First Lieutenant ; George E. Leighton, Second Lieutenant.

FOURTH REGIMENT UNITED STATES RESERVE CORPS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

B. Gratz Brown . . . . . . Colonel.

Rudolph Wesselling . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

S. B. Shaw . . . . . . . Major.

John C. Vogel . . . . . . . Quartermaster.

Jacques Ravald . . . . . . Surgeon.

George Kaufhold . . . . . . Adjutant.

NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF.

Ed. Schultz . . . . . . . Commissary Sergeant.

E. M. Joel . . . . . . . . Quartermaster-sergeant.

Company A. — Charles E. Adams, Captain; George Kaufhold, First Lieutenant; G. C. Abert, Second Lieutenant.

Company B. — Alexander G. Hequembourg, Captain; Louis Schnell, First Lieutenant; Charles Schnell, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — ——, Captain; J. W. Koch, First Lieutenant; Louis Reicholz, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — Louis Schneider, Captain; Philip Winkel, First Lieutenant; Charles Bromser, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — Charles Zimmer, Captain; John Schenkel; First Lieutenant; Henry Obermueller, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — Peter Helle, Captain; F. Merzwieler, First Lieutenant, Charles Knolle, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — John H. Dierke, Captain; Casper Kopp, First Lieutenant ; M. S. Hasie,, Second Lieutenant.

Company H. — William Heyl, Captain; A. Loblein, First Lieutenant; John Reuter, Second

Lieutenant.

Company I. — William C. Jones, Captain ; John W. Stevens, First Lieutenant; John W. Holman, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — Charles Osburg, Captain ; Julius Glade, First Lieutenant; Henry Kleeman, Second Lieutenant.

Company L. — Louis Loos, Captain ; G. Quernori, First Lieutenant; M. Heiloseck, Second Lieutenant.

Company M. — James C Campbell, Captain; J. W. Wilson, First Lieutenant ; John Obercombie, Second Lieutenant.

FIFTH REGIMENT UNITED STATES RESERVE CORPS.

(Three months' service.)

FIELD AND STAFF.

Charles G. Stifel . . . . . . Colonel.

Robert White . . . . . . . Lieutenant-Colonel.

John Fisher . . . . . . . Major.

John K. Cummings . . . . . . Adjutant.

John B. Mears . . . . . . Quartermaster.

Adolph Gemmer . . . . . . Surgeon.

William Drechsler . . . . . . Assistant Surgeon.

Rudolph Docker . . . . . . Chaplain.

Company A. — E. H. Steinman, Captain; Henry Wilke, First Lieutenant; Otto Grassmer, Second Lieutenant.

Company B. — Julius Krusch, Captain; George Dietrich, First Lieutenant; Fred. Forthmann, Second Lieutenant.

Company C. — Augustus Thorwald, Captain; Herman Schuk, First Lieutenant; Bernard Wingastner, Second Lieutenant.

Company D. — William S. Herd, Captain; Joseph Tallman, First Lieutenant; William S. Robinson, Second Lieutenant.

Company E. — Fred. Wedekind, Captain; John Gutberlet, First Lieutenant; Fred. Barth, Second Lieutenant.

Company F. — John N. Herder, Captain; Fred. Kreuter, First Lieutenant ; Fred. Lubbering, Second Lieutenant.

Company G. — William Lorbe, Captain; Henry Mester, First Lieutenant; Fred. Pollmann, Second Lieutenant.

Company H. — Charles F. Kock, Captain; Gustav Knoch, First Lieutenant; John B. Staunch, Second Lieutenant.

Company I. — Charles Schoenbach, Captain; Charles Beck, First Lieutenant; Conrad Muller, Second Lieutenant.

Company K. — James B. Tannehill, Captain; Nicholas F. Wolff, First Lieutenant; Philip Reeger, Second Lieutenant.

Besides these ten regiments of volunteers and reserve corps, there were some three or four hundred regular troops in the arsenal, and several extra companies of the old Citizens' Guard of January, ready to give assistance in case of necessity. In fact, had Lyon possessed the authority, he could have mustered in over twenty thousand men along the line of the Pacific, Southwest Branch, North Missouri, and Hannibal and St. Joseph railroads as rapidly as the rolls could have been made out for the inspection of the mustering officer. To obtain such authority Lyon directed his attention to Washington.

 


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